Standards and guidelines for accessibility (Additional references)
How to design for accessibility
- Principles of universal design and guidelines
- List of Canadian Standards Association accessibility standards
- Partial list of items included in CAN/CSA-B651 Accessible Design for the Built Environment
Standards for the accessibility of terminals are set out in Passenger Terminal Accessibility (Terminal Code) and Accessibility of Non-National Airports System Air Terminals (Non-NAS Code).
Principles of universal design and guidelines
The following are the Principles of Universal Design and their accompanying Guidelines.
Principle One: Equitable Use
The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities.
- Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not.
- Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users.
- Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users.
- Make the design appealing to all users.
Principle Two: Flexibility in Use
The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.
- Provide choice in methods of use.
- Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use.
- Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision.
- Provide adaptability to the user's pace.
Principle Three: Simple and Intuitive Use
Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.
- Eliminate unnecessary complexity.
- Be consistent with user expectations and intuition.
- Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills.
- Arrange information consistent with its importance.
- Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion.
Principle Four: Perceptible Information
The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities.
- Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information.
- Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings.
- Maximize "legibility" of essential information.
- Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions).
- Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations.
Principle Five: Tolerance for Error
The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions.
- Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded.
- Provide warnings of hazards and errors.
- Provide fail safe features.
- Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.
Principle Six: Low Physical Effort
The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.
- Allow user to maintain a neutral body position.
- Use reasonable operating forces.
- Minimize repetitive actions.
- Minimize sustained physical effort.
Principle Seven: Size and Space for Approach and Use
Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility.
- Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user.
- Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user.
- Accommodate variations in hand and grip size.
- Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance.
The following are some examples of applications of the Principles of Universal Design©:
- curb cuts aid many people including people who use wheelchairs, people with strollers, people with luggage on wheels;
- large print pamphlets and documents are easier to read by everyone;
- low buttons and slots on vending machines make them accessible to everyone including people in wheelchairs, children, and people of short stature;
- low floor buses are easier to use by everyone including children, seniors, and people carrying packages; and
- individual washroom facilities accommodate the needs of persons who use wheelchairs and/or attendants and also provide benefits to parents travelling with young children of the opposite sex, offering changing room facilities and amenities for families.
List of Canadian Standards Association accessibility standards
- Accessible Design for the Built Environment
- Accessible Design for Self-Service Interactive Devices
- Accessible Design for Automated Banking Machines
- Customer Service Standard for People with Disabilities
- Inclusive Design for an Aging Population
- Electrical Aids for Physically Disabled Persons
- Lifts for Persons with Physical Disabilities
- Motor Vehicles for the Transportation of Persons with Physical Disabilities
- Transportable Mobility Aids
Partial list of items included in CAN/CSA-B651 Accessible Design for the Built Environment
- Area allowances (size of clear floor area)
- Operating controls (including height, operation, settings, displays, lighting, colour contrast, signage)
- Floor and ground surfaces (including changes in level, carpeting, gratings)
- Protrusion hazards (including protruding objects, width, height, overhead hazards)
- Circulation (including accessible routes, lineup guides, detectable floor and ground surfaces, hazard indicators, direction indicators, doors and doorways, handrails, stairs, ramps, elevating devices, emergency and security)
- Drinking fountains
- Washroom facilities (including stalls, urinals, lavatories, grab bars, and accessories)
- Communications (including assistive listening systems, public telephones, TTYs, and signage)
- Seating (including spaces at tables and counters, and rest area seating)
- Parking (including signage, designated parking, ticketing/payment machines and passenger pick-up areas)
- Accessible routes
- Pedestrian crossings
- Rest area seating
Note: The annexes contain information on:
Annex A: Environmental considerations (including wayfinding, acoustics, lighting and indoor air quality)
Annex B: Anthropometrics
Annex C: Wheeled mobility devices
Annex D: Potential for slip of floor and tread finishes
Annex E: Elevator requirements for persons with physical disabilities
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