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Statement on Vouchers

This non-binding statement on vouchers was issued on March 25, 2020, in the face of unprecedented and extraordinary circumstances impacting domestic and international air travel. Because the law does not require airlines to include refund provisions in their tariffs for flights that are cancelled for reasons beyond their control, there was a real risk that many passengers would end up getting nothing for cancelled flights. This statement was intended to help ensure that didn't happen.

This statement changes nothing with respect to airline obligations and passenger rights under individual airline tariffs. Any passenger who believes they're owed a refund under the relevant tariff and hasn't received one can file a complaint with us. All complaints are dealt with on their merits.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruptions in domestic and international air travel.

For flight disruptions that are outside an airline's control, the Canada Transportation Act and Air Passenger Protection Regulations only require that the airline ensure passengers can complete their itineraries. Some airlines' tariffs provide for refunds in certain cases, but may have clauses that airlines believe relieve them of such obligations in force majeure situations.

The legislation, regulations, and tariffs were developed in anticipation of relatively localized and short-term disruptions. None contemplated the sorts of worldwide mass flight cancellations that have taken place over recent weeks as a result of the pandemic. It's important to consider how to strike a fair and sensible balance between passenger protection and airlines' operational realities in these extraordinary and unprecedented circumstances.

On the one hand, passengers who have no prospect of completing their planned itineraries with an airline's assistance should not simply be out-of-pocket for the cost of cancelled flights. On the other hand, airlines facing huge drops in passenger volumes and revenues should not be expected to take steps that could threaten their economic viability.

While any specific situation brought before the CTA will be examined on its merits, the CTA believes that, generally speaking, an appropriate approach in the current context could be for airlines to provide affected passengers with vouchers or credits for future travel, as long as these vouchers or credits do not expire in an unreasonably short period of time (24 months would be considered reasonable in most cases).

The CTA will continue to provide information, guidance, and services to passengers and airlines as we make our way through this challenging period.

FAQs: Statement on Vouchers

The CTA has been asked a number of questions about its Statement on Vouchers. Below are answers to the most frequently-posed questions.

What is the purpose of the Statement on Vouchers?

The Statement on Vouchers, although not a binding decision, offers suggestions to airlines and passengers in the context of a once-in-a-century pandemic, global collapse of air travel, and mass cancellation of flights for reasons outside the control of airlines.

This unprecedented situation created a serious risk that passengers would simply end up out-of-pocket for the cost of cancelled flights. That risk was exacerbated by the liquidity challenges faced by airlines as passenger and flight volumes plummeted.

For flights cancelled for reasons beyond airlines' control, the Air Passenger Protection Regulations, which are based on legislative authorities, require that airlines ensure passengers can complete their itineraries but do not obligate airlines to include refund provisions in their tariffs.

The statement indicated that the use of vouchers could be a reasonable approach in the extraordinary circumstances resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, when flights are cancelled for reasons outside airlines' control and passengers have no prospect of completing their itineraries. Vouchers for future travel can help protect passengers from losing the full value of their flights, and improve the odds that over the longer term, consumer choice and diverse service offerings -- including from small and medium-sized airlines -- will remain in Canada's air transportation sector. Of course, as noted in the statement, passengers can still file a complaint with the CTA and each case will be decided on its merits.

Why did the CTA talk about vouchers when US and EU regulators have said that airlines should give refunds?

The American and European legislative frameworks set a minimum obligation for airlines to issue refunds when flights are cancelled for reasons outside their control. Canada's doesn't. That's the reason for the difference in the statements.

Some jurisdictions have relaxed the application or enforcement of requirements related to refunds in light of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including European countries that have approved the issuance of vouchers instead of refunds.

Do I have to accept a voucher if I think I'm owed a refund?

The Statement on Vouchers suggests what could be an appropriate approach in extraordinary circumstances, but doesn't affect airlines' obligations or passengers' rights.

Some airline tariffs might not provide for a refund and others might include force majeure exceptions to refund provisions.

If you think that you're entitled to a refund for a flight that was cancelled for reasons related to the COVID-19 pandemic and you don't want to accept a voucher, you can ask the airline for a refund.

Sometimes, the airline may offer a voucher that can be converted to a refund if the voucher hasn't been used by the end of its validity period. This practice reflects the liquidity challenges airlines are facing as a result of the collapse of air travel while giving passengers added protection in the event that they ultimately can't take advantage of the voucher.

If you think you are entitled to a refund and the airline refuses to provide one or offers a voucher with conditions you don't want to accept, you can file a complaint with the CTA, which will determine if the airline complied with the terms of its tariff. Each case will be decided on its merits.

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