Enforcing Compliance – enforcement actions and types of violations

Table of contents

Enforcement actions

A Designated Enforcement Officer's (DEO) response to non-compliance escalates in severity depending upon the nature of the violation and the compliance history of the regulated entity. When a DEO believes that a regulated entity has committed a violation of the Canada Transportation Act (Act) or regulations, or when a regulated entity has not complied with a CTA Order, the following enforcement actions are available:

  • Issuing a Notice of Violation Setting an Administrative Monetary Penalty

    A DEO may issue a Notice of Violation (NOV) setting out the administrative monetary penalty (AMP) that the regulated entity is liable to pay. AMPs are administered based on a progressive scheme of penalties aimed at fostering compliance.

  • Issuing a Notice of Violation that Contains a Warning for Contraventions of Accessibility Provisions

    A DEO who believes that a regulated entity has committed a violation of an obligation made for the purpose of identifying or removing barriers or preventing new barriers in the federal transportation network to the mobility of persons with disabilities may issue an NOV that contains a Warning.

    This is a new power under the Act, as amended by the Accessible Canada Act.

  • Issuing a Cautionary Notice

    A DEO may issue a Cautionary Notice to a regulated entity in a limited set of circumstances when the DEO believes that certain acts or omissions on the part of the entity could be in contravention of the Act or regulations.

For additional details on these enforcement actions, consult the CTA's Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement Policy.

Severity Levels

The CTA has assigned a severity level for each of the legislative or regulatory provisions that are subject to an AMP, from Level A to Level D. A violation of a Level A provision is considered to be strictly administrative in nature, progressing to Level D, the most serious, as described in the following table:

Level Description
A (Administrative) Violation that is strictly administrative in nature
B (Minor) Less serious violation
  • A low impact on the national transportation system
  • An impact on the human right of persons with disabilities to an accessible transportation network
  • A low impact on air passengers
C (Serious) More serious violation
  • A substantial impact on the national transportation system
  • A substantial impact on the human right of persons with disabilities to an accessible transportation network
  • A substantial impact on air passengers
D (Very Serious) The most serious violation
  • A high impact on the national transportation system
  • A high impact on the human right of persons with disabilities to an accessible transportation network
  • A high impact on air passengers

Under the CTA's penalty scheme, progressively higher penalties for repeat violations are imposed. Each subsequent violation of the same provision of the Act or Regulations within a four-year period by the same entity will result in progressively higher penalty amounts, up to the maximum amount specified for each provision.

Administrative Monetary Penalties (various maximum penalty amounts up to $25,000)

Applicable to certain provisions of the:

Corporations

Severity of violation 1st violation 2nd and subsequent violations
A $250 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision
B $1000 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision
B* $100 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision
C $2,500 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision
C* $250 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision
D $5,000 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision
D* $500 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount of the designated legislative or regulatory provision

* Apply to violations of certain APPR and Rail provisions, whereby the AMP is calculated on a per passenger or per car basis as opposed to on a per event basis.

Individuals

Severity of violation 1st violation 2nd and subsequent violations
A $50 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision
B $200 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision
B* $20 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision
C $500 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision
C* $50 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision
D $1,000 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision
D* $100 The penalty amount doubles, up to the maximum amount for the applicable legislative or regulatory provision

* Apply to violations of certain APPR and Rail provisions, whereby the AMP is calculated on a per passenger or per car basis as opposed to on a per event basis.

Administrative Monetary Penalties (maximum penalty amount of $250,000)

Applicable to certain provisions of the:

Severity of violation 1st violation 2nd and subsequent violations
A $2,500 The penalty amount doubles, up to $250,000
B $10,000 The penalty amount doubles, up to $250,000
C $25,000 The penalty amount doubles, up to $250,000
D $50,000 The penalty amount doubles, up to $250,000

Once an NOV that sets out an AMP has been issued for an accessibility related matter, the Agency may, upon request by a regulated entity, enter into a compliance agreement subject to terms that the Agency considers appropriate for the purpose of ensuring the entity's compliance with its legal obligations. The terms may include a provision for the deposit of reasonable security as guarantee that the person will comply with the agreement and may provide for the reduction, in whole or in part, of the amount of the penalty.

Under the Canada Transportation Act, a DEO has the authority to issue an AMP when the DEO believes that a violation has been committed. This policy constitutes a guideline for the DEO who has the ultimate discretion in determining the amount of the AMP.

Note that violations of certain legislative or regulatory provisions – identified in the tables below – are handled on a case-by-case basis, and could result in the issuance of higher AMPs for first and subsequent violations than described above.

Types of contraventions

Enforcement officers monitor compliance with the following legislation and regulations:

These tables show the level of severity of each type of violation.

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